Urine Plasma  
Polyphenol metabolite Composition of the [polyphenol] source Doses
administered
Dose
duration
Total no. subjects Mean urinary excretion (%) Kinetic data Tmax (hours) Mean Cmax (µmol/L) Half life (hours) AUC (µmol/L·h) Kinetic data Reference
human studies
(+)-Catechin Food administered
Generic food
0.37 g/kg bw Single dose 5 Graph HOLT 2002
(-)-Epicatechin Food administered
Generic food
0.37 g/kg bw Single dose 5 Graph HOLT 2002
10 g Single dose 9 4.3 µmol after 24 hours ITO 2005
40 g/day 4 weeks 42 0.24 µmol after 24 hours URPI-SARDA 2009
40 g Single dose 21 0.53 nmol/mg creatinine after 24 hours URPI-SARDA 2009 2
Procyanidin dimer B2 Food administered
Generic food
0.37 g/kg bw Single dose 5 Graph HOLT 2002
40 g Single dose 21 0.2 nmol/mg creatinine after 24 hours URPI-SARDA 2009 2
4-O-Methylgallic acid Food administered
Generic food
10 g Single dose 9 0.6 µmol after 24 hours ITO 2005
Caffeic acid Food administered
Generic food
10 g Single dose 9 0.4 µmol after 24 hours ITO 2005
40 g/day 4 weeks 42 0.07 µmol after 24 hours 0.08 µmol/L after 24 hours URPI-SARDA 2009
40 g Single dose 21 0.39 nmol/mg creatinine after 24 hours URPI-SARDA 2009 2
40 g Single dose 21 Graph URPI-SARDA 2010
40 g Single dose 21 Graph URPI-SARDA 2010
Enterodiol Food administered
Generic food
10 g Single dose 9 0.2 µmol after 24 hours ITO 2005
40 g Single dose 21 0.001 nmol/mg creatinine after 24 hours URPI-SARDA 2009 2
Enterolactone Food administered
Generic food
10 g Single dose 9 3.6 µmol after 24 hours ITO 2005
40 g Single dose 21 0.11 nmol/mg creatinine after 24 hours URPI-SARDA 2009 2
m-Coumaric acid Food administered
Generic food
10 g Single dose 9 1.4 µmol after 24 hours ITO 2005
40 g/day 4 weeks 42 71 µmol after 24 hours URPI-SARDA 2009
40 g Single dose 21 0.01 nmol/mg creatinine after 24 hours URPI-SARDA 2009 2
40 g Single dose 21 Graph URPI-SARDA 2010
40 g Single dose 21 Graph URPI-SARDA 2010
Naringenin Food administered
Generic food
10 g Single dose 9 0.3 µmol after 24 hours ITO 2005
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid Food administered
Generic food
40 g/day 4 weeks 42 1.44 µmol after 24 hours 0.11 µmol/L after 24 hours URPI-SARDA 2009
40 g Single dose 21 Graph URPI-SARDA 2010
40 g Single dose 21 Graph URPI-SARDA 2010
3-Hydroxybenzoic acid Food administered
Generic food
40 g/day 4 weeks 42 2.29 µmol after 24 hours URPI-SARDA 2009
40 g Single dose 21 0.45 nmol/mg creatinine after 24 hours URPI-SARDA 2009 2
40 g Single dose 21 Graph URPI-SARDA 2010
40 g Single dose 21 Graph URPI-SARDA 2010
3-Hydroxyhippuric acid Food administered
Generic food
40 g/day 4 weeks 42 136.69 µmol after 24 hours 0.48 µmol/L after 24 hours URPI-SARDA 2009
3-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid Food administered
Generic food
40 g/day 4 weeks 42 31.23 µmol after 24 hours 0.12 µmol/L after 24 hours URPI-SARDA 2009
40 g Single dose 21 6.53 nmol/mg creatinine after 24 hours URPI-SARDA 2009 2
40 g Single dose 21 Graph URPI-SARDA 2010
40 g Single dose 21 Graph URPI-SARDA 2010
3-Hydroxyphenylpropionic acid Food administered
Generic food
40 g/day 4 weeks 42 4.74 µmol after 24 hours 0.23 µmol/L after 24 hours URPI-SARDA 2009
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid Food administered
Generic food
40 g/day 4 weeks 42 37.34 µmol after 24 hours 9.73 µmol/L after 24 hours URPI-SARDA 2009
40 g Single dose 21 0.55 nmol/mg creatinine after 24 hours URPI-SARDA 2009 2
40 g Single dose 21 Graph URPI-SARDA 2010
40 g Single dose 21 Graph URPI-SARDA 2010
4-Hydroxyhippuric acid Food administered
Generic food
40 g/day 4 weeks 42 57.8 µmol after 24 hours 0.11 µmol/L after 24 hours URPI-SARDA 2009
40 g Single dose 21 1.27 nmol/mg creatinine after 24 hours URPI-SARDA 2009 2
40 g Single dose 21 Graph URPI-SARDA 2010
40 g Single dose 21 Graph URPI-SARDA 2010
5-(3',4',-dihydroxyphenyl)-?-valerolactone Food administered
Generic food
40 g/day 4 weeks 42 34.13 µmol after 24 hours 0.48 µmol/L after 24 hours URPI-SARDA 2009
Dihydrocaffeic acid Food administered
Generic food
40 g/day 4 weeks 42 2.92 µmol after 24 hours 0.2 µmol/L after 24 hours URPI-SARDA 2009
40 g Single dose 21 0.79 nmol/mg creatinine after 24 hours URPI-SARDA 2009 2
40 g Single dose 21 Graph URPI-SARDA 2010
40 g Single dose 21 Graph URPI-SARDA 2010
Ferulic acid Food administered
Generic food
40 g/day 4 weeks 42 4.28 µmol after 24 hours 0.21 µmol/L after 24 hours URPI-SARDA 2009
40 g Single dose 21 10.52 nmol/mg creatinine after 24 hours URPI-SARDA 2009 2
40 g Single dose 21 Graph URPI-SARDA 2010
40 g Single dose 21 Graph URPI-SARDA 2010
Homovanillic acid Food administered
Generic food
40 g/day 4 weeks 42 34.82 µmol after 24 hours URPI-SARDA 2009
40 g Single dose 21 1.54 nmol/mg creatinine after 24 hours URPI-SARDA 2009 2
p-Coumaric acid Food administered
Generic food
40 g/day 4 weeks 42 0.31 µmol after 24 hours 0.03 µmol/L after 24 hours URPI-SARDA 2009
40 g Single dose 21 0.05 nmol/mg creatinine after 24 hours URPI-SARDA 2009 2
40 g Single dose 21 Graph URPI-SARDA 2010
40 g Single dose 21 Graph URPI-SARDA 2010
Phenylacetic acid Food administered
Generic food
40 g/day 4 weeks 42 49.3 µmol after 24 hours 20.21 µmol/L after 24 hours URPI-SARDA 2009
40 g Single dose 21 Graph URPI-SARDA 2010
40 g Single dose 21 Graph URPI-SARDA 2010
Protocatechuic acid Food administered
Generic food
40 g/day 4 weeks 42 34.47 µmol after 24 hours 10.52 µmol/L after 24 hours URPI-SARDA 2009
40 g Single dose 21 0.51 nmol/mg creatinine after 24 hours URPI-SARDA 2009 2
40 g Single dose 21 Graph URPI-SARDA 2010
40 g Single dose 21 Graph URPI-SARDA 2010
Vanillic acid Food administered
Generic food
40 g/day 4 weeks 42 52.44 µmol after 24 hours 2.71 µmol/L after 24 hours URPI-SARDA 2009
40 g Single dose 21 1.14 nmol/mg creatinine after 24 hours URPI-SARDA 2009 2
40 g Single dose 21 Graph URPI-SARDA 2010
40 g Single dose 21 Graph URPI-SARDA 2010
Hippuric acid Food administered
Generic food
40 g Single dose 21 59.43 nmol/mg creatinine after 24 hours URPI-SARDA 2009 2
40 g Single dose 21 Graph URPI-SARDA 2010
40 g Single dose 21 Graph URPI-SARDA 2010
rat studies
(-)-Epicatechin Food administered
Generic food
1500 mg/kg bw Single dose 5 Graph BABA 2001
1 g/kg bw Single dose 5 1 9 Graph BABA 2000
3'-O-Methylepicatechin Food administered
Generic food
1500 mg/kg bw Single dose 5 Graph BABA 2001
  Urine Plasma  
Polyphenol metabolite Composition of the [polyphenol] source Doses
administered
Dose
duration
Total no. subjects Mean urinary excretion (%) Kinetic data Tmax (hours) Mean Cmax (µmol/L) Half life (hours) AUC (µmol/L·h) Kinetic data Reference
human studies
4-Hydroxy-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)valeric acid Food administered
Generic food
40 g Single dose 10 Detected (unquantified) LLORACH 2009
5-(3'-Methoxy-4'-hydroxyphenyl)-?-valerolactone Food administered
Generic food
40 g Single dose 10 Detected (unquantified) LLORACH 2009
Vanillic acid Food administered
Generic food
40 g Single dose 10 Detected (unquantified) LLORACH 2009
Vanilloylglycine Food administered
Generic food
40 g Single dose 10 Detected (unquantified) LLORACH 2009
rat studies
(-)-Epicatechin Food administered
Generic food
1500 mg/kg bw Single dose 5 1067 nmol after 18 hours Graph BABA 2001
1 g/kg bw Single dose 5 0.5 0.5 Graph BABA 2000
3'-O-Methylepicatechin Food administered
Generic food
1500 mg/kg bw Single dose 5 687 nmol after 18 hours Graph BABA 2001